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澳门金沙网址导航:Timeline: Drugs and Alcohol

澳门金沙网址导航:Timeline: Drugs and Alcohol

作者:王凫  时间:2019-03-02 07:05:03  人气:

By New Scientist Highs and lows – a history of intoxication 50,000 YEARS AGO – Neanderthal burial site in Iraq found to contain remains of the herbal stimulant ephedra. Palaeolithic cave art across Europe and Africa suggests artists had experience of hallucinogens (or possibly migraines) 10,000BC – Earliest agriculture. Some evidence that the first crops included psychoactive plants such as mandrake, tobacco, coffee and cannabis 7000BC – Betel seeds, chewed for their stimulant effects, found in archaeological sites in Asia 6000BC – Native South Americans begin cultivating and using tobacco 4200BC – Opium poppy seed pods found in a burial site at Albuñol near Granada, Spain 4000BC – Wine and beer making in Egypt and Sumeria 3500BC – Bronze-age vessels show evidence of wine consumption in eastern Mediterranean 3000BC – Cannabis cultivation in China and Asia; evidence of cannabis smoking in eastern Europe 2000BC – Coca residues found in the hair of Andean mummies 1000BC – Central Americans erect temples to mushroom gods 800BC – Distillation of spirits in India 430BC – Greek historian Herodotus records recreational cannabis smoking among the Scythian people of the Black Sea AD625 – Mohammed orders his followers to abstain from alcohol 1450 – Widespread use of coca leaves by Inca peoples 1475 – Turkish law makes it legal for a woman to divorce her husband if he fails to provide her with coffee 1519 – Spanish courtier Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo y Valdes brings tobacco plants to Europe 1604 – King James I of England publishes “A Counterblast to Tobacco” 1633 – Ottoman sultan Murad IV bans coffee houses on the basis that they are hotbeds of political dissent 1675 – Coffee houses widespread in England; King Charles II tries to ban them 1805 – German chemist Friedrich Sertürner separates morphine from opium 1819 – German chemist Friedrich Ferdinand Runge isolates caffeine from coffee 1850s – New York bartenders invent the cocktail 1859 – German chemist Albert Niemann perfects isolation of cocaine from coca leaves 1868 – In the world’s first piece of anti-drug legislation, the UK Poisons and Pharmacy act makes it illegal to sell opium and other drugs without a licence 1886 – Recipe for Coca-Cola patented, including coca leaves and caffeine-rich kola nuts 1887 – Amphetamine synthesised in Germany 1906 – Coca leaves removed from the recipe for Coca-Cola 1909 – Opium smoking criminalised in the US 1912 – MDMA synthesised by pharmaceutical firm Merck 1914 – Harrison narcotic act places cocaine and opiates under stringent control in the US 1920-33 – Prohibition in the US. Alcohol was also illegal in Finland from 1919 to 1932 and in various Canadian provinces at various times between 1900 and 1948 1933 – Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann synthesises LSD and accidentally discovers its hallucinogenic effects. He later takes what he believes is a tiny dose and discovers LSD’s astonishing potency 1951 – US tycoon Al Hubbard tries LSD and starts promoting its recreational use 1961 – UN agrees the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, which urges member states to take action against opiates and cocaine 1967 – LSD made illegal in the US 1971 – UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances urges banning of synthetic drugs such as amphetamines and LSD 1975 – Netherlands licenses sale of cannabis in coffee shops 1978 – MDMA starts being widely used as a recreational drug; initially called “empathy” but quickly becomes known as “ecstasy” 1988 – Rave culture sweeps Europe More on these topics: